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Chronic oral application of a periodontal pathogen results in brain inflammation, neurodegeneration and amyloid beta production in wild type mice

Fig 4

Proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL1β and TNFα are evident in the hippocampus of experimental but not in control mice.

Data from IF microscopy and RT-PCR. (A-F) Results from IF microscopy. IL6 expression in control (A) and experimental (B) mice, IL1β expression in control (C) and experimental (D) mice and TNFα expression in control (E) and experimental (F) mice. N = 3 mice/group. (G-I) Gene expression of cytokines was detected by RT-PCR (G, H, I). In all cases, there is significantly higher gene expression of all three cytokines in experimental compared with control group (G, H, I). Green: Iba1, Red: cytokines, Blue: DAPI. N = 5 mice/group.

Fig 4

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204941.g004