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Anthocyanins from purple corn activate free fatty acid-receptor 1 and glucokinase enhancing in vitro insulin secretion and hepatic glucose uptake

Fig 7

FFAR1-activating potential of pure anthocyanins and anthocyanins-rich extracts from purple corn determined indirectly through ELISA-based inositol monophosphate (IP) quantification.

The cells were treated with a free fatty acid receptor-1 (FFAR1) agonist TAK-875 (5 μM– 20 μM), and different concentrations of pure anthocyanins (ANC): (1 μM– 300 μM) cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (D3G), the semipurified C3G from purple corn pericarp (C3GP), catechin-(4,8)-cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside condensed form (CF), and the purple corn pericarp water extract (PCW) (0.125 mg/mL– 0.5 mg/mL), A non-linear regression was used to determine the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50).

Fig 7