Anthocyanins from purple corn activate free fatty acid-receptor 1 and glucokinase enhancing in vitro insulin secretion and hepatic glucose uptake
Modulation of insulin secretion in iNS-1E cells as a response to A) cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), peonidin-3-O-glucoside (P3G), pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pr3G), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (D3G); and B) the semipurified C3G from purple corn pericarp (C3GP) catechin-(4,8)-cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside condensed form (CF), purple corn pericarp water extract (PCW). The treatments with pure ANC were from 1 μM to 100 μM, and the anthocyanin-rich extracts from 0.125 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL, the free fatty acid receptor-1 (FFAR1) agonist TAK-875 was tested from 5 μM to 20 μM. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. A dotted line representing 100% was added for reference. Bars with a star means statistical difference (p < 0.05) compared to untreated cells as determined by Dunnet’s test.