Upper thermal limits differ among and within component species in a tritrophic host-parasitoid-hyperparasitoid system
Variation in upper thermal tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTmax) within the caterpillar host Manduca sexta in relation to ontogenetic stage (instar) and parasitism by the wasp Cotesia congregata.
Data points represent the mean ± 1 standard error. Values inside data points represent sample size (number of individuals). The main effects of instar and parasitism were both significant (Two-way ANOVA; Table 1).