Upper thermal limits differ among and within component species in a tritrophic host-parasitoid-hyperparasitoid system
Box-plots of variation in upper thermal tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTmax) in component species of a tri-trophic system involving a caterpillar host (Manduca sexta), a wasp parasitoid (Cotesia congregata), and a wasp hyperparasitoid (Conura sp.).
Dashed lines = mean; solid lines = median; points = 5th/95th percentile outliers. Values inside boxes represent sample size (number of individuals). The means were different among all three species (One-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post-hoc test; all P’s < 0.05). Photo credits: Justin Bredlau.