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Convergent evolution of a mobile bony tongue in flighted dinosaurs and pterosaurs

Fig 10

The M. branchiomandubularis (arrows) in birds and Alligator.

(A)Rhea americana (USNM 615363), (B)Dromaius novaehollandiae (TMM M-14235), (C) Nothura maculosa (USNM 631209), (D)Megapodius pritchardii (USNM 319640), (E) Phasianus colchicus (TMM M-12000), (F)Alligator mississippiensis (TNHC specimen). The two portions of the muscle are indicated in Galliformes: ‘M. branchiomandubularis cranialis’ (mbm_a) and ‘caudalis’ (mbm_p).

Fig 10