Convergent evolution of a mobile bony tongue in flighted dinosaurs and pterosaurs
(A) Microraptor zhaoianus, (B)Confuciusornis sp., (C)Enantiornithine sp., (D)Hongshanornis longicresta. The blue arrow indicates the ossified basihyal in Confuciusornis and Hongshanornis; it was also observed in one specimen of Microraptor. The green arrow indicates the phylogenetically earliest epibranchial . See S1 Table for specimen numbers and supplemental references for published specimens.