Biomarkers associated with low, moderate, and high vastus lateralis muscle hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training
Legend: No significant main effects or cluster×time interaction existed for skeletal muscle IL-6 mRNA levels (panel a). A significant cluster×time interaction existed for existed for IL-1β mRNA (p = 0.029 (panel b), and post hoc tests revealed: a) PRE IL-1β mRNA levels were greater in MOD versus LOW (#; p = 0.050), and b) levels decreased in the MOD (*, p = 0.006) and LOW (*, p = 0.019) clusters following training. A significant time effect existed for TNF-α mRNA (PRE>POST, p = 0.029) (panel c), but no main cluster effect or cluster×time interaction existed. No significant main effect or cluster×time interaction existed for skeletal muscle MSTN mRNA levels (panel d). Data are presented as individual respondent values, bar graph values indicate group mean values, and mean ± standard deviation values are presented below each bar.