Biomarkers associated with low, moderate, and high vastus lateralis muscle hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training
Legend: No significant main effect or cluster×time interaction existed for serum cortisol (panel a). A significant time effect existed for serum myostatin levels (PRE>POST, p = 0.006), but no main cluster effect or cluster×time interaction existed (panel b). No significant main effects or cluster×time interactions existed for phosphorylated NF-κB protein levels (panel c), or MuRF-1 protein levels (panel d). A cluster×time interaction approached significance for 20S proteasome activity (p = 0.058) (panel e), and forced post hoc tests revealed: a) PRE levels were greater in MOD versus LOW (#; p = 0.020), b) higher POST versus PRE levels in the low group approached significance (p = 0.061), and c) higher PRE versus POST levels in the MOD group approached significance (p = 0.077). Data are presented as individual respondent values, bar graph values indicate group mean values, and mean ± standard deviation values are presented below each bar.