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Real-time positioning in logging: Effects of forest stand characteristics, topography, and line-of-sight obstructions on GNSS-RF transponder accuracy and radio signal propagation

Fig 1

Map of the stand locations on the UIEF and illustration of the experimental setup.

(A) The 21 stands are delineated according to total basal area (m2/ha) and the UIEF unit boundaries are shown in blue. Background map is 1-m NAIP imagery. (B) Illustration of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technology paired with radio frequency (RF) transmission (GNSS-RF). GNSS-RF transponders (Atlas PTs) receive positional information from GNSS satellites and relay this information to one another using radio frequency transmission. Atlas PT X is located at the geofence intersection point, while Atlas PTs A, B, and C are located at the triangle points A, B, and C, respectively. The manual faller carried a PT attached at the hip (Atlas PT F).

Fig 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191017.g001