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Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature

Fig 5

Reported results from reviewed studies on the effects of managed bees on wild bees.

The total number of reviewed studies that found positive (+), neutral (0), negative (-), or mixed effects of managed bees on wild bees through (A) competition for shared resources, (B) changes in plant communities, and (C) transmission of pathogens. Studies within each category are divided into those that examined managed bees within their native range, and those that studied managed bees within their introduced range.

Fig 5