Oral immunization of a non-recombinant Lactococcus lactis surface displaying influenza hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) induces mucosal immunity in mice
Mice (8 mice/group) were orally immunized with PBS or LL-HA1/L/AcmA, and samples were collected 2 weeks after the last immunization. HA1/L/AcmA-specific (A) IgG and (B) IgA in serum at 1:10 dilution were determined, in addition to HA1/L/AcmA-specific IgA in (C) faecal sample (1:5 dilution), (D) small intestine wash (neat), (E) BAL fluid (neat) and (F) nasal fluid (neat). One significant outlier was removed from the data set for serum IgA and small intestine wash of PBS-treated group, as well as BAL and nasal fluid of LL-HA1/L/AcmA-treated group (Grubbs’ test, p<0.05), respectively. Data are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between the corresponding groups (*p<0.05).