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Conformational risk factors of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in pugs, French bulldogs, and bulldogs

Fig 7

An illustration demonstrates the relationship between the external craniofacial ratio (CFR) measurement and the corresponding internal anatomical structures of the upper airway.

The realistic anatomical illustration was made according to a computed tomographic 3-dimensional rendering image of a French bulldog. The illustration was reprinted from the Cambridge BOAS research group website ( under a CC BY license, with permission from the group in the University of Cambridge, original copyright 2016.

Fig 7