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Simulating Ideal Assistive Devices to Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Running

Fig 3

Actuator torque and total muscle moment acting about the same degree of freedom when assisting one joint.

The actuator torque (blue), total muscle moment (orange), and net joint moment (black, dotted) for the right leg are shown normalized by subject mass over a running gait cycle (from foot-strike to foot-strike); the mean (line) and standard deviation (shaded region) across 10 subjects are shown when running at 5 m/s with hip (top), knee (center), or ankle (bottom) flexion/extension assistance. Circles indicate peak mean actuator torques; dashed vertical lines indicate the toe-off time (separating stance from swing), averaged across all subjects. The ideal actuator provided most of the joint moment in the ankle assistance scenario; however, when assisting the knee or hip, the total muscle moment was often opposing the actuator torque.

Fig 3