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Are Sport-Specific Profiles of Tendon Stiffness and Cross-Sectional Area Determined by Structural or Functional Integrity?

Fig 3

Between-group comparisons of morphological and mechanical properties for the patellar (A, C, E) and Achilles (B, D, F) tendons.

Normalized stiffness (A, B), Young’s modulus (C, D) and normalized cross-sectional area (E, F) are presented. Scatter plots with mean ± SD bars for ski jumpers (rhombus), runners (square), water polo players (circle) and controls (triangle) are shown. Filled symbols indicate tendon properties evaluated at individual maximal force level and semi open symbols indicate tendon properties evaluated at maximal force level common to all subjects (3.600–4.000 N for PT and 2.250–2.500 N for AT). § P < 0.05, §§ P < 0.01, §§§ P < 0.001 compared with water polo players.* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 compared with controls.

Fig 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158441.g003