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High-Resolution, Non-Invasive Imaging of Upper Vocal Tract Articulators Compatible with Human Brain Recordings

Fig 2

Utterance-to-utterance registration of vocal tract data.

a) All tongue data from one subject. Left, top: overlay of raw tongue data during the pre-vocalization period for all trials; left, bottom: overlay of the same data after applying the optimal transformation. Right, top: overlay of raw tongue data during vocalization for all trials; right, bottom: overlay of the same data after applying the transformation from the pre-vocalization time. b) All lip data from one subject. Left, top: overlay of raw lip data during the pre-vocalization period for all trials; left, bottom: overlay of the same data after applying the optimal transformation. Right, top: overlay of raw lip data during vocalization for all trials; right, bottom: overlay of the same data after applying the transformation from the pre-vocalization time. c) Quantification of efficacy of applying transform from pre-vocalization data to vocalization times: enhanced separability. We calculated the separability between vowels based on articulatory features during vocalization before (raw) and after (transformed) applying the transformation optimized for the pre-vocalization time. The transformed data consistently had increased separability. Black points: mean ± s.d. across vowel comparisons for a subject, red line: median across subjects.

Fig 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151327.g002