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Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

Fig 3

Sensitivity analysis. Number of deaths avoided or postponed per year by 100,000 travellers who shifted modes.

A: Cyclist increment; B: Pedestrians increment. “Linear RR for PA”: Using a linear relative risk function for physical activity (for cycling or walking) as reported by kahlmeier S, et al, 2011; “50% of the trips coming from car trips”: Assume that half of the trips substituted in each scenario come from car trips; “Safety in numbers”: Assuming a fatal accident reduction associated with the increment of the number of pedestrians or cyclist; “Fatal accident risk of the reference city”: Assuming a fatal accident risk similar to the reference city for the scenarios A (fatal accident risk of cyclist in Copenhagen) and B (fatal accident risk of pedestrians in Paris); “European RR function for PM2.5”: Using a relative risk function of PM2.5 and all cause mortality reported in ESCAPE project (Beelen R, et al, 2014); “Fivefold toxicity of PM2.5”: Assuming a fivefold toxicity of PM2.5 from the traffic sources.

Fig 3