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The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era

Fig 7

Operating profits (million USD) and profit margin of Reed-Elsevier as a whole (A) and of its Scientific, Technical & Medical division (B), 1991–2013.

Compilation by the authors based on the annual reports of Reed-Elsevier. ( Numbers for the Scientific, Technical & Medical division were only available in GBP; conversion to USD was performed using historical conversion rates from

Fig 7