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Comprehensive In Vitro Toxicity Testing of a Panel of Representative Oxide Nanomaterials: First Steps towards an Intelligent Testing Strategy

Fig 4

Effects on immune cells (primary human monocyte-derived macrophages).

Cell viability was evaluated using LDH assay after 24h of exposure to TiO2 NM-103 and NM-104 (A), ZnO NM-110 and NM-111 (B) or SiO2 NM-200 and NM-203 (C). The results are expressed as % of cell viability (mean ± SD) versus control cells (100%) and are obtained from three to four independent experiments (donors). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test (*p< 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001).

Fig 4