Chloroquine Is a Zinc Ionophore
A. A2780 cells were plated in a 96-well plate and pretreated with TPEN or Ca-EDTA for 15 min prior to addition of chloroquine (ChQ) and ZnCl2 at the indicated concentrations for 1 hour. B. A2780 cells were plated in a 96-well plate and treated with ChQ alone or in combination with ZnCl2, CuCl2, or FeCl2 at the indicated concentrations for 1 hour. The FluoZin-3 AM (1 µM) probe was then added and fluorescent signal was recorded by excitation at 490/20 nm and emission at 528/38 nm. Data (n = 3, bars, SEM) are presented as a percentage of the highest fluorescence level detected. *, p<0.01, compared with the fluorescence detected in cells without ChQ treatment, using One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni analysis.