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Diabetes Mellitus Aggravates Hemorrhagic Transformation after Ischemic Stroke via Mitochondrial Defects Leading to Endothelial Apoptosis

Figure 2

Effects of chronic high-glucose exposure on apoptotic cell death in HBMVECs.

A: Experimental protocol in vitro. B: Nuclear staining for Hoechst 33342. The number of cells exhibiting nuclear stain was counted (n = 10). The scale bar indicates 50 µm. C: Number of TUNEL-positive cells (n = 4). The scale bar indicates 100 µm. D: Caspase-3/7 activities (n = 10). E: Immunoblotting for Active Caspase-3. F: Immunoblotting for Caspase-7. G: Release of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c (Cyto c) into cytosol, and transit into the nucleus (n = 3). All data are expressed as mean ± SEM (shown as ratio to 5.5 mM). *P<0.05, **P<0.01 vs. 5.5 mM (Dunnet's test). HBMVECs, human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

Figure 2