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The Success of the Horse-Chestnut Leaf-Miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK Revealed with Hypothesis-Led Citizen Science

Figure 1

Scoring damage to horse-chestnut leaves.

Diagrams of leaf damage given to participants to score damage to horse-chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum leaves, adapted from [12]. The accompanying descriptions were: 0 = The leaf is completely green. No evidence of moth attack; 1 = Just a couple of whitish/brown patches on the leaf; 2 = There is more green than white/brown on the leaf; 3 = You can't decide whether green or white/brown dominates. It's about half green leaf and half whitish/brown patches; 4 = The whitish/brown patches definitely cover more than half the leaf. They may cover all the leaf.

Figure 1