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Two Randomized Trials Provide No Consistent Evidence for Nonmusical Cognitive Benefits of Brief Preschool Music Enrichment

Figure 1

Mean test performance by group in Experiment 1.

Scores are reported as total percent correct. PPVT-IIIb scores are standardized by age and calculated as percent of the highest possible standard score. Error bars denote standard errors of the mean. **p<.01; *p<.05, one-tailed.

Figure 1