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City-Scale Expansion of Human Thermoregulatory Costs

Figure 4

Per capita energy demands of human thermoregulation by endogenous and exogenous heat production.

(A) Meta-analysis of all pertinent data available on thermoregulation in naked people from Fig. 3. (B) Metabolism-Ta curves for clothed people (equations and derivation in Table S2). Only a narrow thermoneutral zone (TNZ) is shown in each plot because a person would not elect to stay in the specified clothing at highly elevated Ta. Dot is a direct measurement on a man in winter sports clothing [16]. (C) The rate of addition of heat to the interior of Jack London’s Yukon cabin required to maintain an interior temperature of 20°C (Table S3): W/individual = −74.4 (Ta – 20°C). A cabin heated with hand-cut wood and devoid of electricity has no TNZ because the fire would be allowed to go out at high outside Ta. (D) Data from Fig. 2 for Ames, IA, a city with median properties, assuming 2.6 people per household [40]. Regression below thermoneutrality: W/individual = 2863 – 105Ta.

Figure 4