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In Vitro Infection of Pupae with Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Suggests Disturbance of Transcriptional Homeostasis in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

Figure 1

Experimental study system to follow virus pathogenicity during honey bee pupal development in the laboratory.

[A] Development of IAPV-inoculated (IAPV), PBS-injected (PBS), and negative control (W/O) individuals. The IAPV group shows progressive symptoms of disease, compared to the normally developing PBS and control group. [B] Close-up of the variable symptoms of IAPV replication in white eye honey bee pupae: Complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease (1), Apparently normal development (2), Rapid darkening of different body parts (3,4), Darkening and hindered development combined (5). [C] Control bees are completing metamorphosis.

Figure 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073429.g001