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Chronology of Ksar Akil (Lebanon) and Implications for the Colonization of Europe by Anatomically Modern Humans

Figure 1

Stratigraphic and photographic documentation of the Ksar Akil excavations.

(a) Stratigraphic sequence as established by the early excavations of Boston College. The section drawing of the 23 m-deep stratigraphy illustrates both the archaeological levels (in Latin numerals) and the broad techno-typologically distinct phases (Mousterian, Initial Upper Palaeolithic, etc.) that these levels have been ascribed to; (b) The discovery of Egbert (Ksar Akil 1) in 1938. Close up of the skull in situ. Image copyright Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford (accession number: 1998.294.820); (c) Inferior view of the partial right maxilla of Ethelruda (Ksar Akil 2), modified after [32].

Figure 1