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A Two-Minute Paper-and-Pencil Test of Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Numerical Magnitude Processing Explains Variability in Primary School Children's Arithmetic Competence

Figure 2

Grade by format interaction.

Bar graph representing overall performance of participants in each grade for symbolic and nonsymbolic items. Grade 1 participants were significantly better at nonsymbolic items compared to symbolic items. Participants in grades 2 and 3 did not demonstrate any differences between conditions. Standard errors are represented by the error bars attached to each column.

Figure 2