A Two-Minute Paper-and-Pencil Test of Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Numerical Magnitude Processing Explains Variability in Primary School Children's Arithmetic Competence
Bar graph representing overall performance of participants in each grade for symbolic and nonsymbolic items. Grade 1 participants were significantly better at nonsymbolic items compared to symbolic items. Participants in grades 2 and 3 did not demonstrate any differences between conditions. Standard errors are represented by the error bars attached to each column.