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Comparative Study of the Cytokine/Chemokine Response in Children with Differing Disease Severity in Enterovirus 71-Induced Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

Figure 5

Production of EV71 VP-1–specific IgG and IgM antibodies in patients with increased frequency of CD19+HLA-DR+ cells.

(A) IgG and IgM antibodies were rapidly increased and were markedly higher in plasma from severe patients (n = 13) compared with normal controls (n = 7). The differences between two time points of every individuals were determined by Wilcoxon’s Sign Rank Test. *P<0.05. (B) Very severe patients with acute respiratory failure (n = 8) have lower IgG secretion as compared to patients with uncomplicated neurological manifestations (n = 13), which were both examined before treatment. The unpaired Student’s t-test and non-parametric ANOVA test were used to compare variables between the indicated 2 groups. **P<0.01. (C) Frequency of CD19+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood of severe patients (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 3). Data are expressed as the percentage of the examined cell subset within gated lymphocytes. The lower panel showing representative data from a severe patient indicated that CD19+HLADR+ frequency increased during the course of hospitalization. (D) Representative FACS data examining CD19+ cells from a healthy control and a mild patient with no neurological manifestations.

Figure 5

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067430.g005