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Punish and Voice: Punishment Enhances Cooperation when Combined with Norm-Signalling

Figure 2

(A–B) Results of the simulation experiments.

Panel A depicts the cooperation levels observed in the simulation experiments. Agents are initialized with Individual Weight = 0.5; Normative Weight = 0.5; Initial Punishment Probability = 0.5; Forgetting Probability = 0.3 (for a parameter space exploration, see Text S1). The simulation experiment generates trends similar to the ones obtained with human subjects (compare Figure 1A and Figure 2B). After round 10, cooperation levels are higher in the sanction treatment than in the punishment treatment, because of the combined effect of the normative message and the monetary punishment. Panel B depicts the punishment frequency in the simulation experiments. Simulation results show that the frequency of punishment is significantly higher in the punishment treatment than in the sanction treatment, resulting in a less violent society even obtaining a higher cooperation rates as shown in the previous figure (compare Figure 1C and Figure 2B).

Figure 2