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Scientific Foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems

Figure 5

Contrasting pathways of environmental or biotic degradation and their corresponding risk classifications under criteria C and D.

(a) initially widespread and benign degradation, later increasing in severity. (b) severity and extent of degradation increase at similar rates. (c) localised but severe degradation, later becoming more widespread. Ecosystems that just fail to meet the thresholds for Vulnerable status (e.g. extremely severe (>80%) decline in environmental quality over 20–30% of distribution, or severe (>30%) decline over 70–80% of distribution) may be assigned Near Threatened (NT) status.

Figure 5