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Characterization and Generation of Male Courtship Song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Figure 5

Measurements of wasp movement and sound amplitude of each wing stroke during a single boing.

(A) Wing downstroke displacement (mean ± SE), (B) maximum downstroke velocity, (C) abdominal angle (horizontal = 0°), and (D) sound amplitude during successive wing strokes during a boing averaged from frame by frame analysis of the courtship song produced by three males of Cotesia congregata. Strokes from boings with more than 14 pulses were deleted so that N was always 3.

Figure 5