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How to Handle Speciose Clades? Mass Taxon-Sampling as a Strategy towards Illuminating the Natural History of Campanula (Campanuloideae)

Figure 7

Chronogram of Campanula and relatives (D680) inferred from the penalized-likelihood method implemented in r8s, and dated using one fossil constraint (yellow spiral).

The yellow box refers to the time span between the stem and crown node of Campanula s.lat. Clades are represented by triangles proportional in size to the number of included accessions. Gray triangles indicate the respective outgroup and sister clades; blue triangles refer to “Cam” clades containing at least one accession of Campanula (Cam01 to Cam17; see text). White bars represent 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the respective node ages (blue: crow ages; white: stem ages). An asterisk indicates nodes for which CI could not be calculated. Ma = Mega Annuum or Million years; LOBE = Lobelioideae; CYPHI: Cyphioideae; CA-CYA: Campanuloideae-Cyanantheae; CA-WAH: Campanuloideae-Wahlenbergieae.

Figure 7

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050076.g007