Expression of Ccl11 Associates with Immune Response Modulation and Protection against Neuroinflammation in Rats
(A–D) Congenic and control group representative spinal cord cross sections stained for ED1 (A, C) and Iba-1 (B, D), both hallmarks for activation of microglia/macrophages (brown). Control rats (C, D) showed upregulation of both markers in contrast to congenics (A, B). (E, F) Portions of the control spinal cord cross section showing IgG+ single positive (golden brown, E) plasma cell and CCL11+/IgG+ double positive (maroon; E, F) plasma cells. (G, H) Congenic spinal cord; ventral horn gray matter portion showing CCL11 in neuronal pericarya, dendrites and axons (brown) together with co-stained ED1+ (G) or Iba-1+ (H) cells (both in blue). (I) Congenic spinal cord portion presenting solitary CCL11+ (golden brown)/ED1+ (blue) macrophage on the inflammation site. (J) CCL11+ plasma cell (golden brown) not co-localizing with CD3+ T cells (blue), here in the control spinal cord cross section. (K) Ventral horn of the congenic spinal cord gray matter not undergoing inflammation showing CCR3 upregulation in neurons, dendrites and axons (brown). (L) Dorsal spinal cord white matter expressing CCR3 (dark brown dots), partially downregulated within demyelinated lesion on the right side of the image. (M, N) Ventral horn of the congenic spinal cord gray matter undergoing inflammation revealing CCR3 downregulation in neurons (brown, in the lower (M, 40×) and a chosen detail in the higher magnification (N, 160×). (O) Negative control; a detail representing resident cells in the ventral horn of the spinal cord gray matter.