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Killing Them with Kindness? In-Hive Medications May Inhibit Xenobiotic Efflux Transporters and Endanger Honey Bees

Figure 1

Verapamil synergizes honey bee mortality by five acaricides/insecticides.

Mean mortality (±SE) of honey bees (average of 24 and 48 h) following topical (A, B) and oral (C, D, E) exposure to pesticides. Bees were pre-fed sucrose or sucrose+verapamil (1 mM) solution. For each pesticide, different letters indicate significant differences between treatments (p<0.05).

Figure 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026796.g001