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The Network of Global Corporate Control

Figure 1

Ownership and Control.

(A&B) Direct and indirect ownership. (A) Firm has percent of direct ownership in firm . Through , it has also an indirect ownership in and . (B) With cycles one has to take into account the recursive paths, see Appendix S1, Section 3.1. (C&D) Threshold model. (C) Percentages of ownership are indicated along the links. (D) If a shareholder has ownership exceeding a threshold (e.g. ), it has full control (100%) and the others have none (0%). More conservative model of control are also considered see Appendix S1, Section 3.1.

Figure 1