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Collective Defense of Aphis nerii and Uroleucon hypochoeridis (Homoptera, Aphididae) against Natural Enemies

Figure 2

Pictures of aphid colonies and the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani.

A. nerii colonies feeding on Oleander (Aā€“C) and U. hypochoeridis colonies feeding on Hypochoeris radicata (Dā€“F). CTKR of A. nerii colonies is restricted to those colonies consisting of bucking individuals (a lift abdomen) and some space left for twitching (B). The colony in A is not responding to a rapidly approaching object like a ball pen (diameter = 12 mm, tip size = 1 mm). C Aphidius colemani after less successful oviposition attempts. E Members of an U. hypochoeridis colony in defense posture. F An oviposition attempt of Aphidius colemani before this parasitoid was repelled from an U. hypochoeridis colony through consecutive CTKRs.

Figure 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010417.g002