An Indicator of the Impact of Climatic Change on European Bird Populations
(A) Weighted composite population trajectories of two groups of widespread European land birds from 1980 to 2005. The indices are set to 100 in 1980. The red line shows the weighted composite trend of 30 bird species expected, from climatic envelope models, to increase their geographical range in the study region under projected climatic change, the blue line shows the trend of 92 species expected to lose range under projected climatic change. Potential range change projections were averaged over three GCMs and two emissions scenarios. (B) The Climatic Impact Indicator (CII) (magenta line), which is the ratio of the index for species whose potential geographical ranges are expected to expand to that for those expected to contract because of climatic change. The indicator is set to 100 in 1980. Thin lines show 90% bootstrap confidence intervals for annual values from 10,000 bootstrap replicates. The black line shows a piecewise least squares regression model fitted to the annual values (Table S10). A randomisation test (10,000 randomisations) indicates a probability of 0.047 of obtaining as positive or more positive a linear trend as that from the regression of log CII on year over the whole period (supporting online text). (C) Changes in three measures of climate in the countries from which bird data were collected: MTEMP – mean annual temperature (pink); MTCO – mean temperature of the coldest month (blue); and GDD5 – annual temperature sum above 5°C (red), each standardised to have zero mean and unit variance. The black line shows piecewise least squares regression fitted to the annual standardised values for all three variables (Table S10).