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Lakeside Cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 Years of Holocene Population and Environmental Change

Figure 4

Early Holocene cemetery, burials and skulls.

(A)-Gobero site G3 showing excavated burials (red dots). (B)-Enlarged map of the early Holocene cemetery showing the location of 17 undisturbed burials of skeletons with dark-stained bone (red dots). Five burials (red dot with outer ring) were directly dated to a narrow range of ∼7500±250 years B.C.E. (Figure 2; Table 2). (C)-Skeleton (dark-stained) of an early Holocene adult male (G3B8; ∼7515 B.C.E.) buried in supine, hyperflexed posture with hands over the mouth and feet crossed. Computed-tomography cross-section (below) across the middle of the skeleton (red line) shows the tightly bundled configuration of major limb bones (within a 25 cm×12 cm rectangle) for an adult with stature approximately 2 m. (D)-Skull of early Holocene adult male (as in C) showing long, low calvarium, broad zygomatic width and relatively flat face. (E)-Skull of an early Holocene juvenile (G3B17b; ∼7630 B.C.E; estimated age 5 years) already showing long, low cranial proportions. Scale bar in C equals 13.3 cm for skeleton and 10 cm for CT scan; skull length (glabella-opisthocranion) in D and E equals 190.0 mm and 171.0 mm, respectively. Abbreviations: f, femur, fi, fibula; h, humerus; r, radius; ti, tibia; ul, ulna.

Figure 4

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002995.g004