About the Authors

Ayumi Narisawa

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Resources, Visualization, Writing – original draft

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Sendai City Hospital, Miyagi, Japan

Masahiro Nonaka

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing – review & editing

nonakamasa65@gmail.com

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan

Nobuyuki Akutsu

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Children’s Hospital, Hyogo, Japan

Mihoko Kato

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Aichi Children’s Health and Medical Center, Aichi, Japan

Atsuko Harada

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Takatsuki General Hospital, Osaka, Japan

Young-Soo Park

Roles Conceptualization, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan

Competing Interests

I have read the journal’s policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests:Masahiro Nonaka and Young-Soo Park have written statements and appeared in court in child abuse cases both on the request of the prosecutor and the defense. Atsuko Harada has written statements and appeared in court in child abuse cases on the request of the prosecutor. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.