About the Authors

Thomas Hale

Contributed equally to this work with: Thomas Hale, Andrew J. Hale, Saptarshi Majumdar, Samuel Webster, Yuxi Zhang

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Thomas.hale@bsg.ox.ac.uk

Affiliation Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Noam Angrist

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Andrew J. Hale

Contributed equally to this work with: Thomas Hale, Andrew J. Hale, Saptarshi Majumdar, Samuel Webster, Yuxi Zhang

Roles Conceptualization, Methodology, Validation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America

Beatriz Kira

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Investigation, Project administration, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Saptarshi Majumdar

Contributed equally to this work with: Thomas Hale, Andrew J. Hale, Saptarshi Majumdar, Samuel Webster, Yuxi Zhang

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Software, Visualization, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Anna Petherick

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Toby Phillips

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Project administration, Supervision, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Devi Sridhar

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Professor, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Robin N. Thompson

Roles Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom, Zeeman Institute for Systems Biology and Infectious Disease Epidemiology Research, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

Samuel Webster

Contributed equally to this work with: Thomas Hale, Andrew J. Hale, Saptarshi Majumdar, Samuel Webster, Yuxi Zhang

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Project administration, Software

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Unaffiliated, London, United Kingdom

Yuxi Zhang

Contributed equally to this work with: Thomas Hale, Andrew J. Hale, Saptarshi Majumdar, Samuel Webster, Yuxi Zhang

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.