About the Authors

Nathan Post

Roles Investigation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors share first authorship on this work.

Affiliation Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Danielle Eddy

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Project administration, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors share first authorship on this work.

Affiliation National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom

Catherine Huntley

Roles Investigation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors share first authorship on this work.

Affiliation Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

May C. I. van Schalkwyk

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Madhumita Shrotri

Roles Investigation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

David Leeman

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom

Samuel Rigby

Roles Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Sarah V. Williams

Roles Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

William H. Bermingham

Roles Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Clinical Immunology, University Hospitals Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Paul Kellam

Roles Conceptualization, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

John Maher

Roles Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Studies, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Immunology, Eastbourne Hospital, Eastbourne, United Kingdom

Adrian M. Shields

Roles Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Clinical Immunology Service, Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Gayatri Amirthalingam

Roles Conceptualization, Supervision, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom

Sharon J. Peacock

Roles Conceptualization, Supervision, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Sharif A. Ismail

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

sharif.ismail15@imperial.ac.uk

Affiliations National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf and declare: no support from any organisation for the submitted work; JM is chief scientific officer, shareholder and scientific founder of Leucid Bio, a spinout company focused on development of cellular therapeutic agents; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. This does not alter our adherence to PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.