About the Authors

Sue Anne Bell

Contributed equally to this work with: Sue Anne Bell, Katarzyna Klasa, Theodore J. Iwashyna, Edward C. Norton, Matthew A. Davis

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

sabell@umich.edu

Affiliations Department of Systems, Populations, and Leadership, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Katarzyna Klasa

Contributed equally to this work with: Sue Anne Bell, Katarzyna Klasa, Theodore J. Iwashyna, Edward C. Norton, Matthew A. Davis

Roles Formal analysis, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Theodore J. Iwashyna

Contributed equally to this work with: Sue Anne Bell, Katarzyna Klasa, Theodore J. Iwashyna, Edward C. Norton, Matthew A. Davis

Roles Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, University of Michigan Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Edward C. Norton

Contributed equally to this work with: Sue Anne Bell, Katarzyna Klasa, Theodore J. Iwashyna, Edward C. Norton, Matthew A. Davis

Roles Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Matthew A. Davis

Contributed equally to this work with: Sue Anne Bell, Katarzyna Klasa, Theodore J. Iwashyna, Edward C. Norton, Matthew A. Davis

Roles Conceptualization, Methodology, Supervision, Validation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Systems, Populations, and Leadership, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Learning Health Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.