About the Authors

Dan I. Lubman

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

dan.lubman@monash.edu

Affiliations Turning Point, Eastern Health, Richmond, Victoria, Australia, Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Box Hill, Victoria, Australia, Monash Addiction Research Centre, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia

Sharon Matthews

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Turning Point, Eastern Health, Richmond, Victoria, Australia, Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Box Hill, Victoria, Australia

Cherie Heilbronn

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Turning Point, Eastern Health, Richmond, Victoria, Australia, Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Box Hill, Victoria, Australia

Jessica J. Killian

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Software, Supervision, Writing – original draft

Affiliations Turning Point, Eastern Health, Richmond, Victoria, Australia, Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Box Hill, Victoria, Australia

Rowan P. Ogeil

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Turning Point, Eastern Health, Richmond, Victoria, Australia, Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Box Hill, Victoria, Australia, Monash Addiction Research Centre, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia

Belinda Lloyd

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Turning Point, Eastern Health, Richmond, Victoria, Australia, Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Box Hill, Victoria, Australia

Katrina Witt

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Turning Point, Eastern Health, Richmond, Victoria, Australia, Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Box Hill, Victoria, Australia, Monash Addiction Research Centre, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia

Rose Crossin

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Turning Point, Eastern Health, Richmond, Victoria, Australia, Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Box Hill, Victoria, Australia, Monash Addiction Research Centre, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia

Karen Smith

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Ambulance Victoria, Doncaster, Victoria, Australia, Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia, Department of Epidemiology and Preventative Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Emma Bosley

Roles Data curation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Queensland Ambulance Service, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Rosemary Carney

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation New South Wales Ambulance, Rozelle, New South Wales, Australia

Alex Wilson

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Ambulance Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

Matthew Eastham

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation St John Ambulance Australia (NT) Incorporated, Casuarina, Northern Territory, Australia

Toby Keene

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Australian Capital Territory Ambulance Service, Fairbairn, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

Carol Shipp

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Australian Capital Territory Ambulance Service, Fairbairn, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

Debbie Scott

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Turning Point, Eastern Health, Richmond, Victoria, Australia, Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Box Hill, Victoria, Australia, Monash Addiction Research Centre, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia

Competing Interests

DL has received speaking honoraria from the following: Astra Zeneca, Camurus, Indivior, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, Servier and Shire, and has participated on Advisory Boards for Indivior and Lundbeck. DL, DS, and RC are investigators on an untied educational grant from Seqirus, utilising data from the National Ambulance Surveillance System (NASS), but is unrelated to the development of this project. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.