About the Authors

Michael S. Bono Jr.

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

msb294@cornell.edu (MB); chintanv@mit.edu (CV)

Affiliations Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America, Tata Center for Technology and Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America

Sydney Beasley

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Tata Center for Technology and Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America, Technology and Policy Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America

Emily Hanhauser

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America, Tata Center for Technology and Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America

A. John Hart

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America

Rohit Karnik

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America

Chintan Vaishnav

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

msb294@cornell.edu (MB); chintanv@mit.edu (CV)

Affiliations Tata Center for Technology and Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America

Competing Interests

I have read the journal’s policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: The authors have submitted a utility patent application for potential sensor designs based on the results of this study: Bono MS, Beasley SB, Hanhauser EB, Vaishnav C, Hart AJ, Karnik RN. Systems, Devices, and Methods for Point-of-Use Testing for Fluid Contamination; Filed Oct. 18, 2017. U.S. PCT Patent Application No. PCT/US2017/057265. At the time of article submission, none of the sensor designs described in this patent application have been commercialized, nor are there current agreements in place to commercialize them. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.