About the Authors

Irene B. Murimi-Worstell

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing – original draft

Current address: Program in Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Center for Drug Safety and Effectiveness, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Jeromie M. Ballreich

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Center for Drug Safety and Effectiveness, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Health Policy & Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Marissa J. Seamans

Roles Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Center for Drug Safety and Effectiveness, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

G. Caleb Alexander

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

galexan9@jhmi.edu

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Center for Drug Safety and Effectiveness, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

Caleb Alexander serves as Chair of FDA’s Peripheral and Central Nervous System Advisory Committee; serves as a paid advisor to IQVIA; holds equity in Monument Analytics, a health care consultancy whose clients include the life sciences industry as well as plaintiffs in opioid litigation; and is a member of OptumRx’s National P&T Committee. This arrangement has been reviewed and approved by Johns Hopkins University in accordance with its conflict of interest policies. The other authors have no relevant associations to disclose. These disclosures and the data purchase agreements outlined in the submission portal does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.