About the Authors

Naiki Attram

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Validation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

npuplampu@noguchi.ug.edu.gh, attramn@state.gov

Affiliations US Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Ghana Laboratory, Legon, Ghana, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Bright Agbodzi

Roles Formal analysis, Software, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations US Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Ghana Laboratory, Legon, Ghana, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Helena Dela

Roles Investigation, Project administration

Affiliations US Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Ghana Laboratory, Legon, Ghana, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Eric Behene

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Software, Validation

Affiliations US Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Ghana Laboratory, Legon, Ghana, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Edward O. Nyarko

Roles Investigation, Project administration

Affiliation Department of Public Health, Military Hospital, Accra, Ghana

Nicholas N. A. Kyei

Roles Investigation, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Public Health, Military Hospital, Accra, Ghana

John A. Larbi

Contributed equally to this work with: John A. Larbi, Bernard W. L. Lawson

Roles Supervision

Affiliation Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

Bernard W. L. Lawson

Contributed equally to this work with: John A. Larbi, Bernard W. L. Lawson

Roles Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

Kennedy K. Addo

Roles Supervision

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Mercy J. Newman

Roles Conceptualization, Supervision

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Science, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana

Christopher A. Duplessis

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Writing – review & editing

Current address: Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

Affiliation US Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Ghana Laboratory, Legon, Ghana

Nehkonti Adams

Roles Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing – review & editing

Current address: Navy Medicine Professional Development Center, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Affiliation US Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Ghana Laboratory, Legon, Ghana

Magnus Unemo

Roles Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, National Reference Laboratory for STIs, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden

Andrew G. Letizia

Roles Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing – review & editing

Current address: Infectious Diseases Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

Affiliation US Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Ghana Laboratory, Legon, Ghana

Competing Interests

NA, BA, HD, EB, CAD, NA, AGL are affiliated with the US Navy. The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessary reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government.