About the Authors

Ruth Ann Marrie

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

rmarrie@hsc.mb.ca

Affiliations Department of Internal Medicine, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Department of Community Health Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Julia O’Mahony

Roles Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Division of Neurology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Colleen J. Maxwell

Roles Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, ICES, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Vicki Ling

Roles Formal analysis, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation ICES, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

E. Ann Yeh

Roles Funding acquisition, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto; Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Neurosciences and Mental Health, SickKids Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Douglas L. Arnold

Roles Funding acquisition, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Amit Bar-Or

Roles Funding acquisition, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Center for Neuroinflammation and Experimental Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Brenda Banwell

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child Neurology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

for the Canadian Pediatric Demyelinating Disease Network

Membership of the Canadian Pediatric Demyelinating Disease Network is provided in the Acknowledgements.

Competing Interests

Ruth Ann Marrie receives research funding from: CIHR, Research Manitoba, Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada, Multiple Sclerosis Scientific Foundation, Crohn’s and Colitis Canada, National Multiple Sclerosis Society, CMSC. She is supported by the Waugh Family Chair in Multiple Sclerosis. Colleen Maxwell reports research funding from CIHR, Ontario Brain Institute Integrated Discovery Program, Velux Stiftung, Canadian Frailty Network, P.S.I. Foundation, MS Society of Canada, MS Scientific Research Foundation, CMSC, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (Health System Research Fund), Alzheimer Society Research Program, Partners for the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging, University of Waterloo - Chronic Disease Prevention Initiative Seed Grant, Aging and Retirement Grants from the RBC / UW Applied Health Sciences Partnership Fund, and Network for Aging Research Grant. She is supported by a University Research Chair at the University of Waterloo. E. Ann Yeh receives research funding from the MS Society of Canada, MS Scientific Research Foundation, National MS Society, Consortium of MS Centers, Ontario Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell Network, SickKids Foundation, and Centre for Brain and Mental Health. Dr. Yeh reports competing interests related to the following commercial sources: she has served on the scientific advisory board for Juno Therapeutics and is a relapse adjudicator for ACI. She received research support from Biogen Idec. Douglas Arnold receives research funding from CIHR, MS Society of Canada, IMPSA. He holds an equity interest in NeuroRx Research. Dr. Arnold reports competing interests related to the following commercial sources: personal fees from Adelphi Communications, Celgene, Genentech, Genzyme, Hoffman LaRoche, Immune Tolerance Network, MedDay Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Receptos, Roche, Sanofi-Aventis, grants and personal fees from Biogen and Novartis, grants from Immunotec. Amit Bar-Or receives research funding from the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada, Multiple Sclerosis Scientific Foundation, the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, The Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Bar-Or has competing interests related to the following commercial sources: He has received consulting fees and/or grant support from: Janssen/Actelion; Atara Biotherapeutics, Biogen Idec, Celgene/Receptos, Roche/Genentech, MAPI, Medimmune, Merck/EMD Serono, Novartis, Sanofi-Genzyme. Brenda Banwell receives research funding from: Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada, Multiple Sclerosis Scientific Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Dr. Banwell also has competing interests related to the following commercial sources: serves as a consultant to Novartis, and as a non-remunerated advisor on clinical trial design for Novartis, Sanofi Aventis, Teva Neuroscience, and Biogen IDEC. Dr. Banwell has received speaker honoraria from Excemed and Medscape. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.