About the Authors

Emma Beard

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

e.beard@ucl.ac.uk

Affiliation Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Robert West

Roles Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Fabiana Lorencatto

Roles Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, Centre for Outcomes Research and Effectiveness, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Ben Gardner

Roles Data curation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom

Susan Michie

Roles Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, Centre for Outcomes Research and Effectiveness, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Lesley Owens

Roles Conceptualization, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, NICE, London, United Kingdom

Lion Shahab

Roles Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

EB has received unrestricted funding from Pfizer. RW has undertaken research and consultancy for companies that develop and manufacture smoking cessation medications. LS has received honoraria for talk and travel expenses from manufacturers of medications for smoking cessation to attend meetings and workshops. RW is funded by Cancer Research UK; EB is funded by the NIHR SPHR and CRUK also provide support. RW is funded by Cancer Research UK and NIHR SPHR also provide support. SPHR is a partnership between the Universities of Sheffield; Bristol; Cambridge; Exeter; UCL; The London School for Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; the LiLaC collaboration between the Universities of Liverpool and Lancaster and Fuse; The Centre for Translational Research in Public Health, a collaboration between Newcastle, Durham, Northumbria, Sunderland and Teesside Universities. The views expressed are those of the authors(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, NIHR, or Department of Health. No funders had any involvement in the design of the study, the analysis or interpretation of the data, the writing of the report, or the decision to submit the paper for publication. LO’s salary is funded by NICE. BG and FL have nothing to declare. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.