About the Authors

Hong J. Kan

Contributed equally to this work with: Hong J. Kan, Hadi Kharrazi

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Validation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

hkan1@jhu.edu

Affiliation Center for Population Health IT, Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Hadi Kharrazi

Contributed equally to this work with: Hong J. Kan, Hadi Kharrazi

Roles Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Center for Population Health IT, Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Hsien-Yen Chang

Roles Software, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Center for Population Health IT, Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Dave Bodycombe

Roles Software, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Center for Population Health IT, Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Klaus Lemke

Roles Data curation, Software, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Center for Population Health IT, Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Jonathan P. Weiner

Roles Data curation, Resources, Software, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Center for Population Health IT, Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

I have read the journal's policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: This study applied algorithms for grouping diagnosis codes and prescription drugs from the ACG case-mix/risk adjustment methodology, developed at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. The Johns Hopkins University receives royalties for non-academic use of the software based on the ACG methodology. Dr. Kan, Dr. Chang, Dr. Kharrazi, Dr. Bodycombe, Dr. Lemke and Dr. Weiner receive a portion of their salary support from this revenue. This does not alter our adherence to all PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.