About the Authors

Joanna L. Kaplan

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Software, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Joshua A. Stern

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Software, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

jstern@ucdavis.edu

Affiliation Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Andrea J. Fascetti

Contributed equally to this work with: Andrea J. Fascetti, Jennifer A. Larsen

Roles Methodology, Resources, Visualization, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Jennifer A. Larsen

Contributed equally to this work with: Andrea J. Fascetti, Jennifer A. Larsen

Roles Methodology, Resources, Visualization, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Hannah Skolnik

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Investigation, Methodology

Affiliation Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Gordon D. Peddle

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Animal Emergency & Referral Associates, Fairfield, New Jersey, United States of America

Richard D. Kienle

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Mission Valley Veterinary Cardiology, Gilroy, California, United States of America

Andrew Waxman

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation SAGE Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Dublin, California, United States of America

Michael Cocchiaro

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Veterinary Specialty Hospital of the Carolinas, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Catherine T. Gunther-Harrington

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Tyler Klose

Roles Resources

Affiliation Lakeshore Veterinary Specialists, Glendale, Wisconsin, United States of America

Kendra LaFauci

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation CVCA Cardiac Care for Pets Annapolis, Annapolis, Maryland, United States of America

Bonnie Lefbom

Roles Resources

Affiliation The Regional Veterinary Referral Center, CVCA Cardiac Care for Pets, Springfield, Virginia, United States of America

Maggie Machen Lamy

Roles Resources

Affiliation Veterinary Cardiopulmonary Care Center, West Palm Beach, Florida, United States of America

Rebecca Malakoff

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation MSPCA Angell West, Waltham, Massachusetts, United States of America

Satoko Nishimura

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Maureen Oldach

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Steven Rosenthal

Roles Resources

Affiliation CVCA Cardiac Care for Pets, Towson, Maryland, United States of America

Christopher Stauthammer

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America

Lynne O’Sullivan

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Companion Animals, Atlantic Veterinary College University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada

Lance C. Visser

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Regan William

Roles Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Veterinary Emergency Clinic, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Eric Ontiveros

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Visualization, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

A.J. Fascetti is the Scientific Director of the Amino Acid Laboratory at the University of California, Davis that provides amino acid analysis on a fee for service basis. This did not lead to any conflict of interest or influence the collection or interpretation of results in this study. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.